The Road to Absolutism

The Honorable Joseph L. Call is judge of the Municipal Court, Los Angeles Judicial District.

Justice Paterson, speaking of the erosion of constitutional government and its inevitable trend to absolutism, puts it thus: “Power is insatiable and if left unchecked will create what it wishes. Innovation is dangerous; one encroachment leads to another, precedent gives birth to precedent; what has been done may be done again; thus radical principles are broken in upon and the constitution eventually destroyed.”1 And the court might well have further added that this danger is more potent in our case of a written constitution because the forms of the written constitution captivate the people long after its soul has fled.

History is replete with examples of the emergence of totalitarian governments through constitutional erosion. Taking for illustration the history of Greece during “The Golden Age”2 we find that at the inception of the sixth century Greece was composed politically of an aggregate of small and numerous independent states very loosely associated as the Peloponnesian League. Autonomy, self-government, and independence from intermeshing alliances were the most sacred of all political principles. However, after the victories over Persian aggression in Plataea and Mycale (479 B.C.) the cornerstone was laid for a more binding alliance between the autonomous states. Aided by these triumphs and capitalizing on the sense of a common peril, Athens made the first determined effort to break down the barriers of independence and autonomy implicit in the Greek political system. The effort was successful and the independent states were brought into combination, the union being known as the Delian League.3

While the autonomous states were told and believed that the League was to be but a confederation of independent units, the underlying purpose was the gradual subordination of the autonomous states to the coalition under the cloak of expediency. Thus, while superficially formed as a confederacy, there was written into the League three attributes of sovereignty that vitiated greatly the power of the component states. There were 1) a permanent executive, 2) mandatory payment of taxes into a common treasury, 3) periodic meetings held by the council.

From the first, Athens seized power. The fleet was predominantly Athenian; since the ostensible purpose of the taxes was to support the fleet, Athens did the collecting and the spending as she saw fit. The right of secession was left undecided in the original articles of federation, but Athenian military supremacy would have made such stipulation of no value in any event. By the middle of the fifth century the power of Athens, left unchecked by the ineptitude and inefficiency and later by impotence of the confederate states, took over. Absolutism was the political pattern and all pretense of the Delian League was completely discarded, and in its place arose the totalitarian Athenian empire.

Thus through political cunning and unscrupulous artifice, the self-government of the component states vanished and the empire was supreme. Ultimately the Athenian Empire gave way to the Spartan Empire, and it in turn was shattered at Leuctra (371 B.C.) and on its ruins was built the hegemony of Thebes, an empire in all but name. Thus was tyranny enthroned on the ruins of the once free and independent states.

The history of Rome furnishes us with a close parallel. Originally a republic, the insatiable appetite for power ultimately devoured the principle of self-government underlying its constitution. While the erosion of self-government was gradual, complacent, and leisurely, the action was nevertheless constant and continuous, until approximately 45 B.C. when Caesar, flush from his triumphs after the victory of Munda, demanded and received from the Roman Senate a “perpetual dictatorship.” This decree was followed by the repudiation of the last vestiges of constitutional government, and political corruption was reduced to a science. The republic was concluded; totalitarian government took over, and there followed a series of emperors and dynasties reaching into the year 1453 A.D.

It is a common practice with those who assume power over others to camouflage their assumption of power with the forms of the prevailing constitution and in the name of democracy. Caesar operated “as the champion of the people” and so did his successors, Augustus and Tiberius. In each of these cases fraud was perpetrated on the people by purporting to maintain the outward forms of democratic and republican government, while at the same time each united in his own person all of the leading offices and used them to give legal title to what was essentially military despotism. It is such a situation that Chief Justice Fuller of the United States Supreme Court had in mind when he said, “Our form of government may remain . . . but . . . it is with governments as with religions, the form may survive the substance of faith.”

The danger in the United States is that the constitutional principles of liberty and popular sovereignty are being secretly and slowly undermined and destroyed. Basically this is due to a lack of sufficient limitations and restrictions upon the power of government. At this time, and particularly during the last 20 years, the Constitution through construction, interpretation, and interpolation has been molded to cover a profusion of federal powers never intended under the Constitution. The power of the people to amend or alter the Constitution is provided for fully in the document itself. To take away in effect this right through judicial or executive construction is actually peculating the sovereignty and the rights of the people and is usurpation of power by those sworn “to preserve and protect the Constitution.”

One of the basic reasons for the decadence of constitutional government since the early 1930′s is the moral corruption of the people by the exercise of paternalistic power. It must be remembered that the intrinsic principle of good government is self-government, and self-government demands individual responsibility. The attempt to create a Utopian government is to destroy the reliance of the citizen on himself, and hence his freedom of action. Governmental paternalism is a slow anesthesia and can and will stymie all advance as surely as individual initiative has been dethroned in Russia.

The usurpation of power through imperialistic foreign ventures also has taken its toll of self-government and constitutional principles. The role of “World Guardian” that our government has assumed has already resulted in 1) the displacing of legislative dissent with biparty conformity, and 2) unconstitutional strengthening of the powers of the executive. On the subject of biparty conformity on political questions there is no real difference at the present time between our two great political parties despite the popular clamor to the contrary. Both the Democratic party and Republican party have adopted the socialistic philosophy and principles, under other names.

On the matter of imperialism it may be pointed out that since this policy was unofficially adopted in 1945, the power of the President has expanded as if by necromancy. Power to enact international and internal law without act of Congress by executive agreement4 is countenanced, and involvement in foreign war without act or declaration by Congress has become a fait accompli.5

No other governing power in the history of the world has ever dissipated the resources of the country in the advancement of paternalistic and imperialistic policies as freely as has the United States government in the last 15 years. Aside from the heavy taxation this has put upon the people, the federal bonded debt has been run up to approximately 280 billion dollars, added to which there is at least 225 billion dollars of federal guarantees. If we add to this the 200 billion dollars of city and state obligations outstanding, the current liabilities of the country stand at approximately 700 billions. And the debt is rising steadily. At least 12 billion dollars have been added to the bonded indebtedness of the United States since 1952, and at the present time the interest charge on the bonded indebtedness is close to 7 billion dollars. If, as, and when the low interest bonds and short-term notes mature, they must constantly be refunded at higher rates. Hence, it is only a matter of time until the total interest charge will mount to 9 or 10 billion dollars annually.

These conditions of constitutional decadence through paternalistic and imperialistic policies can only be overcome by a repudiation of the self-surrender that has taken place in the country and a determined return to the principle of limited government. This calls for a public disavowal of such policies and for a withdrawal of the powers acquired by Washington. And that calls for public-spirited leaders who are motivated solely by the desire to return to basic Americanism, another name for which is freedom. []


1. Valhorn vs. Darriance, U. S. Reports, 2 Dallas, p. 311 (1795).

2. Ascribed as the fifth and sixth centuries B.C.

3. Created 477 B.C.

4. See, U. S. v. Belmont, 301 U. S. 324; U. S. v. Pink, 315 U. S. 203 (1942); Valentine v. U. S., 299 U. S.

5. The Korean War

No other governing power in the history of the world has ever dissipated the resources of the country in the advancement of paternalistic and imperialistic policies as freely as has the United States government in the last 15 years. Aside from the heavy taxation this has put upon the people, the federal bonded debt has been run up to approximately 280 billion dollars, added to which there is at least 225 billion dollars of federal guarantees. If we add to this the 200 billion dollars of city and state obligations outstanding, the current liabilities of the country stand at approximately 700 billions. And the debt is rising steadily. At least 12 billion dollars have been added to the bonded indebtedness of the United States since 1952, and at the present time the interest charge on the bonded indebtedness is close to 7 billion dollars. If, as, and when the low interest bonds and short-term notes mature, they must constantly be refunded at higher rates. Hence, it is only a matter of time until the total interest charge will mount to 9 or 10 billion dollars annually. These conditions of constitutional decadence through paternalistic and imperialistic policies can only be overcome by a repudiation of the self-surrender that has taken place in the country and a determined return to the principle of limited government. This calls for a public disavowal of such policies and for a withdrawal of the powers acquired by Washington. And that calls for public-spirited leaders who are motivated solely by the desire to return to basic Americanism, another name for which is freedom. [] is countenanced, and involvement in foreign war without act or declaration by Congress has become a . No other governing power in the history of the world has ever dissipated the resources of the country in the advancement of paternalistic and imperialistic policies as freely as has the United States government in the last 15 years. Aside from the heavy taxation this has put upon the people, the federal bonded debt has been run up to approximately 280 billion dollars, added to which there is at least 225 billion dollars of federal guarantees. If we add to this the 200 billion dollars of city and state obligations outstanding, the current liabilities of the country stand at approximately 700 billions. And the debt is rising steadily. At least 12 billion dollars have been added to the bonded indebtedness of the United States since 1952, and at the present time the interest charge on the bonded indebtedness is close to 7 billion dollars. If, as, and when the low interest bonds and short-term notes mature, they must constantly be refunded at higher rates. Hence, it is only a matter of time until the total interest charge will mount to 9 or 10 billion dollars annually. These conditions of constitutional decadence through paternalistic and imperialistic policies can only be overcome by a repudiation of the self-surrender that has taken place in the country and a determined return to the principle of limited government. This calls for a public disavowal of such policies and for a withdrawal of the powers acquired by Washington. And that calls for public-spirited leaders who are motivated solely by the desire to return to basic Americanism, another name for which is freedom. [] While the autonomous states were told and believed that the League was to be but a confederation of independent units, the underlying purpose was the gradual subordination of the autonomous states to the coalition under the cloak of expediency. Thus, while superficially formed as a confederacy, there was written into the League three attributes of sovereignty that vitiated greatly the power of the component states. There were 1) a permanent executive, 2) mandatory payment of taxes into a common treasury, 3) periodic meetings held by the council. From the first, Athens seized power. The fleet was predominantly Athenian; since the ostensible purpose of the taxes was to support the fleet, Athens did the collecting and the spending as she saw fit. The right of secession was left undecided in the original articles of federation, but Athenian military supremacy would have made such stipulation of no value in any event. By the middle of the fifth century the power of Athens, left unchecked by the ineptitude and inefficiency and later by impotence of the confederate states, took over. Absolutism was the political pattern and all pretense of the Delian League was completely discarded, and in its place arose the totalitarian Athenian empire. Thus through political cunning and unscrupulous artifice, the self-government of the component states vanished and the empire was supreme. Ultimately the Athenian Empire gave way to the Spartan Empire, and it in turn was shattered at Leuctra (371 B.C.) and on its ruins was built the hegemony of Thebes, an empire in all but name. Thus was tyranny enthroned on the ruins of the once free and independent states. The history of Rome furnishes us with a close parallel. Originally a republic, the insatiable appetite for power ultimately devoured the principle of self-government underlying its constitution. While the erosion of self-government was gradual, complacent, and leisurely, the action was nevertheless constant and continuous, until approximately 45 B.C. when Caesar, flush from his triumphs after the victory of Munda, demanded and received from the Roman Senate a “perpetual dictatorship.” This decree was followed by the repudiation of the last vestiges of constitutional government, and political corruption was reduced to a science. The republic was concluded; totalitarian government took over, and there followed a series of emperors and dynasties reaching into the year 1453 A.D. It is a common practice with those who assume power over others to camouflage their assumption of power with the of the prevailing constitution and in the name of democracy. Caesar operated “as the champion of the people” and so did his successors, Augustus and Tiberius. In each of these cases fraud was perpetrated on the people by purporting to maintain the of democratic and republican government, while at the same time each united in his own person all of the leading offices and used them to give legal title to what was essentially military despotism. It is such a situation that Chief Justice Fuller of the United States Supreme Court had in mind when he said, “Our form of government may remain . . . but . . . it is with governments as with religions, the form may survive the substance of faith.” The danger in the United States is that the constitutional principles of liberty and popular sovereignty are being secretly and slowly undermined and destroyed. Basically this is due to a lack of sufficient limitations and restrictions upon the power of government. At this time, and particularly during the last 20 years, the Constitution through construction, interpretation, and interpolation has been molded to cover a profusion of federal powers never intended under the Constitution. The power of the people to amend or alter the Constitution is provided for fully in the document itself. To take away in effect this right through judicial or executive construction is actually peculating the sovereignty and the rights of the people and is usurpation of power by those sworn preserve and protect the Constitution.” One of the basic reasons for the decadence of constitutional government since the early 1930′s is the moral corruption of the people by the exercise of paternalistic power. It must be remembered that the intrinsic principle of good government is self-government, and self-government demands individual responsibility. The attempt to create a Utopian government is to destroy the reliance of the citizen on himself, and hence his freedom of action. Governmental paternalism is a slow anesthesia and can and will stymie all advance as surely as individual initiative has been dethroned in Russia. The usurpation of power through imperialistic foreign ventures also has taken its toll of self-government and constitutional principles. The role of “World Guardian” that our government has assumed has already resulted in 1) the displacing of legislative dissent with biparty conformity, and 2) unconstitutional strengthening of the powers of the executive. On the subject of biparty conformity on political questions there is no real difference at the present time between our two great political parties despite the popular clamor to the contrary. Both the Democratic party and Republican party have adopted the socialistic philosophy and principles, under other names. On the matter of imperialism it may be pointed out that since this policy was unofficially adopted in 1945, the power of the President has expanded as if by necromancy. Power to enact international and internal law without act of Congress by executive agreement is countenanced, and involvement in foreign war without act or declaration by Congress has become a . No other governing power in the history of the world has ever dissipated the resources of the country in the advancement of paternalistic and imperialistic policies as freely as has the United States government in the last 15 years. Aside from the heavy taxation this has put upon the people, the federal bonded debt has been run up to approximately 280 billion dollars, added to which there is at least 225 billion dollars of federal guarantees. If we add to this the 200 billion dollars of city and state obligations outstanding, the current liabilities of the country stand at approximately 700 billions. And the debt is rising steadily. At least 12 billion dollars have been added to the bonded indebtedness of the United States since 1952, and at the present time the interest charge on the bonded indebtedness is close to 7 billion dollars. If, as, and when the low interest bonds and short-term notes mature, they must constantly be refunded at higher rates. Hence, it is only a matter of time until the total interest charge will mount to 9 or 10 billion dollars annually. These conditions of constitutional decadence through paternalistic and imperialistic policies can only be overcome by a repudiation of the self-surrender that has taken place in the country and a determined return to the principle of limited government. This calls for a public disavowal of such policies and for a withdrawal of the powers acquired by Washington. And that calls for public-spirited leaders who are motivated solely by the desire to return to basic Americanism, another name for which is freedom. [] we find that at the inception of the sixth century Greece was composed politically of an aggregate of small and numerous independent states very loosely associated as the Peloponnesian League. Autonomy, self-government, and independence from intermeshing alliances were the most sacred of all political principles. However, after the victories over Persian aggression in Plataea and Mycale (479 B.C.) the cornerstone was laid for a more binding alliance between the autonomous states. Aided by these triumphs and capitalizing on the sense of a common peril, Athens made the first determined effort to break down the barriers of independence and autonomy implicit in the Greek political system. The effort was successful and the independent states were brought into combination, the union being known as the Delian League. While the autonomous states were told and believed that the League was to be but a confederation of independent units, the underlying purpose was the gradual subordination of the autonomous states to the coalition under the cloak of expediency. Thus, while superficially formed as a confederacy, there was written into the League three attributes of sovereignty that vitiated greatly the power of the component states. There were 1) a permanent executive, 2) mandatory payment of taxes into a common treasury, 3) periodic meetings held by the council. From the first, Athens seized power. The fleet was predominantly Athenian; since the ostensible purpose of the taxes was to support the fleet, Athens did the collecting and the spending as she saw fit. The right of secession was left undecided in the original articles of federation, but Athenian military supremacy would have made such stipulation of no value in any event. By the middle of the fifth century the power of Athens, left unchecked by the ineptitude and inefficiency and later by impotence of the confederate states, took over. Absolutism was the political pattern and all pretense of the Delian League was completely discarded, and in its place arose the totalitarian Athenian empire. Thus through political cunning and unscrupulous artifice, the self-government of the component states vanished and the empire was supreme. Ultimately the Athenian Empire gave way to the Spartan Empire, and it in turn was shattered at Leuctra (371 B.C.) and on its ruins was built the hegemony of Thebes, an empire in all but name. Thus was tyranny enthroned on the ruins of the once free and independent states. The history of Rome furnishes us with a close parallel. Originally a republic, the insatiable appetite for power ultimately devoured the principle of self-government underlying its constitution. While the erosion of self-government was gradual, complacent, and leisurely, the action was nevertheless constant and continuous, until approximately 45 B.C. when Caesar, flush from his triumphs after the victory of Munda, demanded and received from the Roman Senate a “perpetual dictatorship.” This decree was followed by the repudiation of the last vestiges of constitutional government, and political corruption was reduced to a science. The republic was concluded; totalitarian government took over, and there followed a series of emperors and dynasties reaching into the year 1453 A.D. It is a common practice with those who assume power over others to camouflage their assumption of power with the of the prevailing constitution and in the name of democracy. Caesar operated “as the champion of the people” and so did his successors, Augustus and Tiberius. In each of these cases fraud was perpetrated on the people by purporting to maintain the of democratic and republican government, while at the same time each united in his own person all of the leading offices and used them to give legal title to what was essentially military despotism. It is such a situation that Chief Justice Fuller of the United States Supreme Court had in mind when he said, “Our form of government may remain . . . but . . . it is with governments as with religions, the form may survive the substance of faith.” The danger in the United States is that the constitutional principles of liberty and popular sovereignty are being secretly and slowly undermined and destroyed. Basically this is due to a lack of sufficient limitations and restrictions upon the power of government. At this time, and particularly during the last 20 years, the Constitution through construction, interpretation, and interpolation has been molded to cover a profusion of federal powers never intended under the Constitution. The power of the people to amend or alter the Constitution is provided for fully in the document itself. To take away in effect this right through judicial or executive construction is actually peculating the sovereignty and the rights of the people and is usurpation of power by those sworn preserve and protect the Constitution.” One of the basic reasons for the decadence of constitutional government since the early 1930′s is the moral corruption of the people by the exercise of paternalistic power. It must be remembered that the intrinsic principle of good government is self-government, and self-government demands individual responsibility. The attempt to create a Utopian government is to destroy the reliance of the citizen on himself, and hence his freedom of action. Governmental paternalism is a slow anesthesia and can and will stymie all advance as surely as individual initiative has been dethroned in Russia. The usurpation of power through imperialistic foreign ventures also has taken its toll of self-government and constitutional principles. The role of “World Guardian” that our government has assumed has already resulted in 1) the displacing of legislative dissent with biparty conformity, and 2) unconstitutional strengthening of the powers of the executive. On the subject of biparty conformity on political questions there is no real difference at the present time between our two great political parties despite the popular clamor to the contrary. Both the Democratic party and Republican party have adopted the socialistic philosophy and principles, under other names. On the matter of imperialism it may be pointed out that since this policy was unofficially adopted in 1945, the power of the President has expanded as if by necromancy. Power to enact international and internal law without act of Congress by executive agreement is countenanced, and involvement in foreign war without act or declaration by Congress has become a . No other governing power in the history of the world has ever dissipated the resources of the country in the advancement of paternalistic and imperialistic policies as freely as has the United States government in the last 15 years. Aside from the heavy taxation this has put upon the people, the federal bonded debt has been run up to approximately 280 billion dollars, added to which there is at least 225 billion dollars of federal guarantees. If we add to this the 200 billion dollars of city and state obligations outstanding, the current liabilities of the country stand at approximately 700 billions. And the debt is rising steadily. At least 12 billion dollars have been added to the bonded indebtedness of the United States since 1952, and at the present time the interest charge on the bonded indebtedness is close to 7 billion dollars. If, as, and when the low interest bonds and short-term notes mature, they must constantly be refunded at higher rates. Hence, it is only a matter of time until the total interest charge will mount to 9 or 10 billion dollars annually. These conditions of constitutional decadence through paternalistic and imperialistic policies can only be overcome by a repudiation of the self-surrender that has taken place in the country and a determined return to the principle of limited government. This calls for a public disavowal of such policies and for a withdrawal of the powers acquired by Washington. And that calls for public-spirited leaders who are motivated solely by the desire to return to basic Americanism, another name for which is freedom. [] And the court might well have further added that this danger is more potent in our case of a written constitution because the of the written constitution captivate the people long after its soul has fled. History is replete with examples of the emergence of totalitarian governments through constitutional erosion. Taking for illustration the history of Greece during “The Golden Age” we find that at the inception of the sixth century Greece was composed politically of an aggregate of small and numerous independent states very loosely associated as the Peloponnesian League. Autonomy, self-government, and independence from intermeshing alliances were the most sacred of all political principles. However, after the victories over Persian aggression in Plataea and Mycale (479 B.C.) the cornerstone was laid for a more binding alliance between the autonomous states. Aided by these triumphs and capitalizing on the sense of a common peril, Athens made the first determined effort to break down the barriers of independence and autonomy implicit in the Greek political system. The effort was successful and the independent states were brought into combination, the union being known as the Delian League. While the autonomous states were told and believed that the League was to be but a confederation of independent units, the underlying purpose was the gradual subordination of the autonomous states to the coalition under the cloak of expediency. Thus, while superficially formed as a confederacy, there was written into the League three attributes of sovereignty that vitiated greatly the power of the component states. There were 1) a permanent executive, 2) mandatory payment of taxes into a common treasury, 3) periodic meetings held by the council. From the first, Athens seized power. The fleet was predominantly Athenian; since the ostensible purpose of the taxes was to support the fleet, Athens did the collecting and the spending as she saw fit. The right of secession was left undecided in the original articles of federation, but Athenian military supremacy would have made such stipulation of no value in any event. By the middle of the fifth century the power of Athens, left unchecked by the ineptitude and inefficiency and later by impotence of the confederate states, took over. Absolutism was the political pattern and all pretense of the Delian League was completely discarded, and in its place arose the totalitarian Athenian empire. Thus through political cunning and unscrupulous artifice, the self-government of the component states vanished and the empire was supreme. Ultimately the Athenian Empire gave way to the Spartan Empire, and it in turn was shattered at Leuctra (371 B.C.) and on its ruins was built the hegemony of Thebes, an empire in all but name. Thus was tyranny enthroned on the ruins of the once free and independent states. The history of Rome furnishes us with a close parallel. Originally a republic, the insatiable appetite for power ultimately devoured the principle of self-government underlying its constitution. While the erosion of self-government was gradual, complacent, and leisurely, the action was nevertheless constant and continuous, until approximately 45 B.C. when Caesar, flush from his triumphs after the victory of Munda, demanded and received from the Roman Senate a “perpetual dictatorship.” This decree was followed by the repudiation of the last vestiges of constitutional government, and political corruption was reduced to a science. The republic was concluded; totalitarian government took over, and there followed a series of emperors and dynasties reaching into the year 1453 A.D. It is a common practice with those who assume power over others to camouflage their assumption of power with the of the prevailing constitution and in the name of democracy. Caesar operated “as the champion of the people” and so did his successors, Augustus and Tiberius. In each of these cases fraud was perpetrated on the people by purporting to maintain the of democratic and republican government, while at the same time each united in his own person all of the leading offices and used them to give legal title to what was essentially military despotism. It is such a situation that Chief Justice Fuller of the United States Supreme Court had in mind when he said, “Our form of government may remain . . . but . . . it is with governments as with religions, the form may survive the substance of faith.” The danger in the United States is that the constitutional principles of liberty and popular sovereignty are being secretly and slowly undermined and destroyed. Basically this is due to a lack of sufficient limitations and restrictions upon the power of government. At this time, and particularly during the last 20 years, the Constitution through construction, interpretation, and interpolation has been molded to cover a profusion of federal powers never intended under the Constitution. The power of the people to amend or alter the Constitution is provided for fully in the document itself. To take away in effect this right through judicial or executive construction is actually peculating the sovereignty and the rights of the people and is usurpation of power by those sworn preserve and protect the Constitution.” One of the basic reasons for the decadence of constitutional government since the early 1930′s is the moral corruption of the people by the exercise of paternalistic power. It must be remembered that the intrinsic principle of good government is self-government, and self-government demands individual responsibility. The attempt to create a Utopian government is to destroy the reliance of the citizen on himself, and hence his freedom of action. Governmental paternalism is a slow anesthesia and can and will stymie all advance as surely as individual initiative has been dethroned in Russia. The usurpation of power through imperialistic foreign ventures also has taken its toll of self-government and constitutional principles. The role of “World Guardian” that our government has assumed has already resulted in 1) the displacing of legislative dissent with biparty conformity, and 2) unconstitutional strengthening of the powers of the executive. On the subject of biparty conformity on political questions there is no real difference at the present time between our two great political parties despite the popular clamor to the contrary. Both the Democratic party and Republican party have adopted the socialistic philosophy and principles, under other names. On the matter of imperialism it may be pointed out that since this policy was unofficially adopted in 1945, the power of the President has expanded as if by necromancy. Power to enact international and internal law without act of Congress by executive agreement is countenanced, and involvement in foreign war without act or declaration by Congress has become a . No other governing power in the history of the world has ever dissipated the resources of the country in the advancement of paternalistic and imperialistic policies as freely as has the United States government in the last 15 years. Aside from the heavy taxation this has put upon the people, the federal bonded debt has been run up to approximately 280 billion dollars, added to which there is at least 225 billion dollars of federal guarantees. If we add to this the 200 billion dollars of city and state obligations outstanding, the current liabilities of the country stand at approximately 700 billions. And the debt is rising steadily. At least 12 billion dollars have been added to the bonded indebtedness of the United States since 1952, and at the present time the interest charge on the bonded indebtedness is close to 7 billion dollars. If, as, and when the low interest bonds and short-term notes mature, they must constantly be refunded at higher rates. Hence, it is only a matter of time until the total interest charge will mount to 9 or 10 billion dollars annually. These conditions of constitutional decadence through paternalistic and imperialistic policies can only be overcome by a repudiation of the self-surrender that has taken place in the country and a determined return to the principle of limited government. This calls for a public disavowal of such policies and for a withdrawal of the powers acquired by Washington. And that calls for public-spirited leaders who are motivated solely by the desire to return to basic Americanism, another name for which is freedom. []

Further Reading

{{article.Title}}

{{article.BodyText}}